Born in Bavaria in 1840, Nast emigrated to New York City with his mother and sister in 1846 and his father followed them in 1850. Nast’s early artistic influences were historical painter Theodore Kaufmann, with whom he began his first formal study; Alfred Fredericks, whose studio was nearby and who became a mentor to Nash and helped him gain entry to the Academy of Design, as well as Frank Leslie, the publisher of Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly Newspaper who hired the sixteen-year old Nast for five dollars a week. At Frank Leslie’s, Nast befriended Pfaffians Sol Eytinge, Richard H. Stoddard, Charles Halpine (Miles O’Reilly), George Arnold, Frank Bellew, and Fitz-James O’Brien (Paine 21-22). He also studied the illustrations in the British magazine Punch; he was particularly interested in the social satire present in John Tenniel’s cartoons.
Recent biographer, Fiona Deans Halloran, writes of his connection to Pfaff's noting that "drinking beers at Pfaff's, Nast socialized with a wide variety of New York's literati. That social world embracced Nast as a sort of pet. From it, he learned about art, writing, reporting, and the connections that underlay business relationships" (40). Thomas Gunn, who was well-connected in the Pfaffian circle, wrote frequently about Nast and kept meticulous records of the evolution of Nast's relationship with Sallie Edwards, who would eventually become his wife (cf. Gunn vol. 11, 105). Scholar Louis Starr Starr writes that in March 1861, Nast, a "familiar face," at Pfaff's Cave, was absent. "The roly-poly fledgling of the New York Illustrated News, Nast was in Washington for Lincoln's inauguration (3). He was also a member of "the artists' contingent of the Bohemian brigade" who gained the "widest renown" and had tangential connections to Pfaff's (Starr 9, 354).
By 1862 Nast realized a long-held dream and joined the artistic staff at Harper’s Weekly where he remained for twenty-five years. Many of his cartoons from this period relate to the Civil War. In addition to contributing caricatures to lesser-known periodicals Phunny Phellow, the Riverside Magazine for Young People, and Mrs. Grundy, Nast also illustrated books like Mary Mapes Dodge’s Hans Brinker: or, the Silver Skates, Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, Clement Clarke Moore’s A Visit from Saint Nicholas, several of Dickens’ works, and the work of regional humorists like Petroleum V. Nasby. From 1864 to 1884, Nast drew satirical, topical caricatures that commented on political and social events like the "Boss" Tweed-Tammany Hall scandal. Nast is remembered for crafting symbolic political caricatures such as Uncle Sam, Miss Columbia, the Tammany tiger, and mascots for political parties (the Republican elephant and the Democratic donkey). He is also credited with popularizing images of Santa Claus. The five children he had with wife Sarah Edwards served as models for Nast’s Christmas pictures. Plagued by debt near the end of his life, Nast accepted the position of U.S. Consul in Guayaquil, Ecuador from President Theodore Roosevelt in 1902. He contracted yellow fever there and died at the age of sixty-two (Piscitelli).
Derby quotes James Parton's "Triumphs of Enterprise" for his account of the beginning of Nast's career (696-97). In “Triumphs of Enterprise” James Parton provides details about the beginning of Nast’s career: “Being remarkably short for his age, and of a boyish expression of countenance, the publisher looked at him with astonishment. ’What, my boy,’ said he, ’so you think you can draw well enough for my paper, do you?’ ’I would like to try,’ said the youth” (qtd. in J. Derby 696).
Leslie gave Nast the task of capturing the image of the waterfront as the Hoboken ferry was docking: “This was putting the lad to a severe test. Mr. Leslie . . . had not expectation of the ’little fellow’s’ doing it, and gave him the job merely for the purpose of bringing home to his youthful mind the absurdity of his application. The young artist repaired immediately to the ferry-house, where he at once proceeded to the performance of the difficult task assigned to him. He struck boldly, however, upon the paper, and produced a sketch, which, though far from correct, abounded in those graphic and vigorous touches so needful in popular illustration. Mr. Leslie saw at a glance its merits and defects, and at once made a place for him in his establishment" (qtd. in J. Derby 696-697).[pages:696-697]
Figaro discusses a ball held by Max Maretzek at the Academy of Music "for the benefit of that rising young artist, Thomas Nast" (4). Figaro reprints one of his imitations of the "facetise" in the Saturday Press (4).[pages:4]
Nast calls before Gunn leaves for a charity ball: "Tuesday. Working. Down town in the afternoon, to the Post Office &c. Found a note from Frank Leslie on my return, requesting me to go to the Charity ball at "the Academy," in order to write a comic article about it. Nast, a young artist called, at at about 10 we went" (40).
Cahill tells Gunn that Eythinge, Thomson, and Nast went to the Opera intoxicated: "Cahill had been to the Opera with Sol Eytinge and Thomson; all of the party – so Cahill says – were drunk before they went there. Doesticks went into the Tribune office – the sale room – wanted to borrow $5, bullied the paymaster on his refusing, got the money – had a friendly boxing match with Sol in the street, rode up town with the others in the omnibus and flared up generally. Little Nast was with them – drunk also. How they separated
Cahill couldn't recollect" (206).
Nast went to sketch a fight between Morrissey and Heenan: "To Frank Leslie's, saw Wood. He's been to Canada of late to visit a brother. Sol Eytinge wanted to go to sketch the fight – for the so-called championship, between the Americo-Irish pugilists hight Morrissey and Heenan – which is making a great sensation Here – but Leslie wouldn't come down with $100 which he expenses. So little Nast went" (238).[pages:40, 206, 238]
Gunn provides a description of Nast: "Sunday. Chores, writing &c till the afternoon, then to 16th Street. Found little Nast with Haney. An industrious little chap, German by birth, American in speech (and exceedingly ungrammatically so) goodhumored, I think, and unsophisticated, but shrewdly intent on money making. He does a good deal of drawing now, since his quitting Frank Leslie's, but works rather from knack and industry than perception. Haney has taken him up of late.) He likes playing patron, which habit he may owe to his schoolmaster days.) After supping we turned out together and into a rain-storm, they going to Edwards', I to Chapins', joining them subsequently. Little Nast was there for the first time and in high glee. The girls noticed his assaults on Lindley Murray when he came out with 'There are some people what thinks ––!'" (25).
Gunn describes a party, saying Nast enjoyed himself: "Found little Nast with Haney. The Edwards' in half an hour. Ed. Wells, Knudsen Easton appeared presently which with the family made up a sufficient little party, manually assembled to discuss proceedings on the approaching 'fourth'. We played vingt-un for counters (cheating the bank when practicable) cross-scribbling, had two dances, singing, sandwiches, ale and music. Altogether pleasanter and more successful than the set-occasion parties where the feeling of responsibility sometimes defeats it purpose. The girls looked nice as usual, Matty exceedingly pretty. Pink muslin frock, fair, smooth hair, delicately fair skin with rose-red tinting the cheeks and kind eyes – that's Matty Edwards at 15. Sally, very pleasant looking, knows more than her sister. Little Nast enjoyed himself hugely, as did all. Wells did his fandango. Broke up about 12" (27-28).
Gunn says Nast and Honeywell were asleep in the car: "Cars at last and a horribly slow progress home. Little Nast and Honeywell asleep with their heads together, the latter snorting intermittently, oblivious of Matty also fast asleep, her head in Eliza's lap" (33).
Gun writes that Mattie Edwards sent Cahill a note through Nast: "He [Cahill] has a little bit of a note of her writing, of which he showed me the signature 'Mattie Edwards' in an odd, little, neat upright hand. She, through Nast, sent him a message to the effect that he was 'real mean' for keeping away, which evidently gratified him" (64).
Gunn believes Nast has feelings for Sally: "To further complicate matters, little Nast talks much of Sally! He is going into the country with them. Poor little Nast! You are in for a heart twinge, my boy! What an old, old story it is! How amusing and how touching!" (65-66).
Gunn writes about an upcoming trip to Grafton Fair Corner: "In the evening to 16th, again, then to Edwards'. Mr and Mrs E. away at Poughkeepsie for a day, Matty opened door to me, Haney, Knudsen, Nast, Honeywell and the two other girls being on the roof. A bit of talk with Matty anent recent presumed unfriendliness – all right. Folks descended. Much talk of the coming country sojourn. They start for Grafton fair Corners (I think the name is) on Friday next. Tis a small place, some 14 miles inland from Troy. Knudsen and Nast (and Jack) got with them, Haney proposes one weeks' visit, after the two have elapsed. I was kindly enough invited, especially by Sally, but don't think I shall go" (67).
Gunn writes about a farewell party: "A room full of folks, the girls, Haney, Nast, Wells, Honeywell, Pillow, a Californian, Knud sen &c present and a hop in progress. A farewell party for the girls, Jack, Knudsen and Nast start for Grafton Centre tomorrow" (73).
Gunn talks of a letter illustrated by Nast: "A letter from Jack describing the journey into the country, illustrated by Nast's sketches" (75).
Gunn journals about Nast's return: "Nast came in, having this day journeyed from Grafton Centre, with intent to stop two days in New York, but returns with Haney. Bellew, Cahill, Haney and presently Mr Edwards' up. (Latter shook hands with Cahill but didn't talk to him.) Haney and Nast off" (82).
Gunn recalls a sketch by Nast of Sally Edwards: "Didn't put down yesterday that Nast among other sketches exhibited a pretty elaborate one of Sally Edwards. Poor little Nast! 'Alas! regardless of his doom the little victim plays!' T'was not badly done, but the face was too solid" (84).
Gunn says Nast had a sketchbook of illustrations: "To Haney's by 7, Nast and Wells came, Nast with sketch book full of illustrations of Wells' 4th of July 'pome' and of our picnic" (102).
Gunn says that Nast told Sally about his love for her: "Together to Edwards'. Little Nast in his white vest and trousers sitting on the sofa. Dropped into talk with Matty, Haney conversed either with Mr Edward, or Jack, Sallie sat working at the table, till at my request she joined us. Both the girls were confidential tonight, Sally, having more to tell, particularly so. Little Nast 'told his love' within a day after their arrival in the country. Sally said 'she was sorry' but 'how could you help it'. Little Nast was willing to wait any time. He has no chance; the girl knows so much more than he. She thinks him good-natured, which he is. Monroe the Californian too, has said 'in fun' before her mother that he is ready to marry Sally. 'He is such a bore' she says" (105).
Gunn mentions Nast's aspirations: "He [Haney] never dreamed of the direction of little Nast's aspirations, supposing them devoted to –– Eliza!!! He has acted on that assumption all along" (107).
Gunn writes that Nast will only visit the Edwards' once a week: "Then to Edwards'. Only the family present, no visitors, for a marvel. Little Nast has declared he shall come but once a week. He and Wells have joined Ottignons and are 'going in' gymnastically. Considerable abuse of Fanny Fern this evening" (109).
Gunn describes Nast's portratis, "Out with Haney, met Nast in Union Square. Left them at Edwards', I to Chapin's, who didn't preach, his place being supplied by Starr King of Boston. Frank Hillard and his wife accosted me on quitting, walked with them as far as Edwards. Serrell and young Honeywell there in addition to Haney and Nast. Honey well near Matty, Nast adjacent to Sally. Nast's portraits of the girls on table – only Sally's done decently, Matty's very poor" (111).
Gunn says Haney and Nast have been at the Edwards' house a lot: "Talk with Sally and Eliza. Haney has been at the house every day during the past week, Nast also, almost" (114).
Gunn journals about a party and its guests: "Sally, Matty, Eliza, Jack, Wells, Nast, Honeywell, myself and Haney were the party. (Miss Ann Edwards, here on a visit from Norfolk Va. didn't show.) To Bourcicault's 'Winter Garden' to see 'Dor.' Trash! of the stage stagy. I sat 'twixt Eliza and Matty, Honeywell in front of the latter, Haney by Sally, with Wells on to'ther side of her, Nast beside Eliza" (118).
Gunn writes about Sally and Nast's relationship: "He made inquiries as to the others his rivals, Monroe, Wells and Nast She [Sally] confessed the truth of the allegation with respect to the first and last, smiled as to the middle one. Haney didn't learn from her that Nast had proposed and rejected – I told him that. Maybe my former communications had their influence in inducing him to take this step, as I half-hoped it would with the expectation of a different result" (123).
Gunn describes attending Mort's lecture: "I, Haney and Matt went together, Nast and Jack doing dead-head in another part of the hall, little Thomas' modesty deterrming him from taking a seat in the platform with the presenters" (132).
Gunn writes that Nast was influenced by Mort's lecture: "When Mort was at an appropriate juncture, Haney declares he heard a clap of approbation proceeding from the pudgy hand of little Nast. He would sit open mouthed, swallowing all Mort's teachings as gospel and resolving to act upon them" (134).
Gunn writes about Nast's wooing of Sally Edwards: "Haney's present soreness and suspicion may make him see more in these things than he would have done ordinarily. He doesn't love Nast any better and though I can study these developments coolly enough, I justify Haney. Little, chubby, ignorant, good-humored, selfish, uncultured Nast! I do by no means admire your indecent haste in 'flopping' as it were, at Sally's feet, directly you found yourself among the woods and rocks of Grafton Centre! It'll do your pudgy, approbative, short-necked soul no harm, this disappointment" (135).
Gunn wonders if Nast would have acted differently had he known Haney's liking for Sally: "Respect for Haney, if Nast was unaaware of his claims (which I doubt, for he is an intimate at the Thomsons', and they suspectted Haney's liking for Sally, long ago, and doubtless talk it over) might have taught Nast better, if there were any teaching him. But how little of generosity and fair play is shown by those wiser than Nast in the passion" (136).
Gunn says Haney has offended Nast: "Fanny, in all probability, told the lie about Haney's being a disappointed suitor of Grace's to Thomson, and he unquestionably would believe it. His coarseness must occasionally offend Grace; it has even little Nast" (163).
Gunn describes a conversation with Haney regarding Nast and Sally Edwards: "He [Haney] thinks that her mother is in favor of the match also. There has been a theatre visit of Sally's asking and little Thomas' purveying from which Haney was silently excluded. He spake of it, not to Sally, and frank Matty came out with the truth. Nast waylays them too, of afternoons in Broadway, to walk up town with them. He is at the house as much as possible. Now I know Sally rather despises his intellect, thinks he is 'a good-humored little fellow enough'; either she meditates taking him in order to rule, to do what she likes with him, or is merely amusing herself, not ranking his feelings as of importance, anyway. Sally, after the
rejection, asked him what he thought of Nast; in effect whether Thomas would 'do'. This betokened lack of feeling, not to say selfishness. On the memorable Fourth of July excursion he, Haney had strayed off alone among the trees and mountains with Sally, he 'in an absurd state of happiness' at the propinquity, when she contrived to end it by slipping off and rejoining Nast. That must have been bitter enough. Haney acknowledges ^|his| error in playing pedagogue, as I termed it, but with a strong gush of feeling anent the girls power over him, which I could well understand" (181-183).
Gunn contemplates Sally's decisions: "It might have been better and happier for her, had she married Haney. Methinks little Nast would be soon thrown over now, did a more eligible suitor appear. He is coarse-natured, though good-humored – the latter being three-fourths composed of approbativeness. He is very ignorant, but industrious and thriving. Sally knows all this, and knowing it ought to calculate consequences" (184).
Gunn describes his gift for the Edwards: "The side shelf-counter too was littered with them. Nast had anticipated me in presenting Papa Edwards with the 'Tale of Two Cities' but mine was the better edition. (I only brought that and a Rosa Bonheur 'Horse Fair: engraving for Mrs E.')" (191).
Gunn gives credit to Nast for the play: "Then the play, of the detail of which I shall write nothing here, as I've done it in print for the Courier. It was an immense success; could not have gone off better. Nast was extraordinary" (192).
Gunn writes about the Edwards Christmas party where Haney's poem was read. Nast is mentioned (203).
Gunn talks of Nast's illustrations: "Nast illustrated Welles' poem about our fourth of July picnic. His singing don't amount to much. Lines inserted subsequent to the rest, that she and party mightn't feel as if invidiously omitted. I think he is a clockmaker. A topic on which she is generally eloquent, says Haney. A very pretty girl, a school-friend of Eliza's. As they sat beside each other on the sofa during the reading this poem, I thought theirs were the most intelligent girls' faces in the party" (204).
Gunn includes a letter from the Edwards family; Nast has signed it (215-216).
Gunn includes his article about the Edwards family's Christmas party (255).[pages:25, 27-28, 33, 64, 65-66, 67, 73, 75, 82, 84, 102, 105, 107, 109, 111, 114, 118, 123, 132, 134, 135, 136, 163, 181-183, 184, 191, 192, 203, 204, 215-216, 255]
Gunn writes about Nast: "To Edwards' in the evening. Found the three girls and Nast, the latter playing draughts – with Sally. Got an account of the Sunday nights tea-fight, the girls intimating and ridiculing Fan. Nast wasn't invited; he's somehow in disgrace in that quarter" (21).
Gunn says Nast was sent to Lawrence, Massachusetts: "To Edwards', Haney, Nast and Knudsen present, beside the family. (I'd seen the second at Church, standing at the entrance of the pew, which was already full.) He, Nast, was sent on to Lawrence, Mass, to sketch the scene of the Pemberton Mills calamity, and met Will Waud there, on a like errand, for Frank Leslie" (23).
Nast is mentioned in a newspaper clipping that Gunn includes outing Joseph Scoville as the New York correspondent "Harmony" for the Mobile Register (25).
Gunn discusses Nast's leaving: "Haney, Nast, Wells and Honeywell there, a hop in progress. Sally had been sick abed yesternight, kept it up bravely this one. Morris came. Dubious about Nast's leaving New York; Sally hints that it'll be a good thing for him if he goes (?)" (37).
Gunn writes about a conversation with Sally Edwards about Thomas Nast: "Haney came to supper. Joined him at Edwards in an hour or two. The girls and Jack present, anon Nast. (Mr. and Mrs E. at the theatre.) Talk, chaff and fun. Got into a long confidential talk with Sally about Nast, to his intense misery and, I judge, jealousy" (53-56).
Gunn documents a conversation with Sally Edwards regarding Nast: "Talking with the girls, first with Matty and Eliza; very jolly, presently with Sally. She almost immediately resumed the subject of our last conversation, hinted that Nast had been forbidden to write, said that he had been very savage in consequence of her neglecting him, when so near his departure, opined that I didn't do him justice &c. She admits she don't love him, but "there's no knowing whether she mayn't in time – it would be something to make anybody happy – she don't think she would ever love anybody much – she had had her little fancies, but they never lasted – well! she admitted if his superior presented himself she might &c., but would it happen? she should come to a decision soon." She appeared to more advantage, I thought, than on the former tête Ã tête" (68).
Gunn wonders what Matty thinks of Sally and Nast: "She is very honest and good, and likes fair play. I think she revolts at Sally's fast and loose behavior with Nast. Pretty Matty!" (80).
Gunn speaks of Nast's sketch job: "Little Nast has gone to England, to sketch the fight for the championship between Heenan and Sayers, for the 'Illustrated News'. It was kept secret awhile, as a stroke of policy over F. Leslie. Nast knows 'the Berucia Boy' from having accompanied Mort. Thomson to Canada last summer, when the fight between Heenan and Morrissey came off. Mort reported it for 'the Tribune', Nast sketched for Leslie" (83-84).
Gunn describes a talk he had with Sally Edwards: "Sally, of course, knew Nast's destination. We got to talking of him, &c. She hints that she likes him more than I give her credit for – she's 'not demonstrative, you know'; says, again, 'I don't do him justice', that he is bashful, conscious of ignorance, yet willing to cover it with a show of assurance. She talked about Haney, too, and characterized his abatement in liking for her as "fizzling out" – distrusted its reality, said "it was better as it was" – that it had ended. Evidently Mrs T. Nast in future" (86).
Gunn writes about a published letter that is said to be written by Nast: "Little Nast will hardly return to the U.S. for twelve months, so I heard Eliza say, talking to Morris (who dropped in at 10, after an unsuccessful call at Fanny Fern's) – there's a letter from 'Thomas' in the 'Illustrated News', accompanying his sketches. Said letter must have been considerably cooked and improved, if not wholly re-written, for Nast couldn't spell, much less write a decent English" (135-36).
Gunn talks about Nast when discussing an evening at the Edwards: "Seeing Welles, they got talking about little Nast and Wells mentioned two funny anecdotes of Tommy. Mrs. Thomson, when talking of the Edwards' girls, gave the intellectual precedence to Sally, when little Nast, got up, made her a bow and thanked her! Being goodnaturedly asked why he hadn't visited his friends recently, he said conceitedly he found friends 'didn't pay' – he was going to be independent &c. &c. If he do get presented at court, as they are trying to effect (!) what an edifying spectacle he'll be on his return to New York!" (161).
Gunn includes a newspaper clipping regarding a story about the competition between The New York Illustrated News and Frank Leslie's Illustrated News (187).
Gunn describes Nast's nickname: "Little Nast became quite popular among the pugilists in England, was known as 'the little dragsman'" (192).
Gunn writes about the editors of Nick Nax: "Cahill proves a more friendly editor to me, thus, than was Haney; who was right enough, Heaven knows, in preferring Bellew's cuts, when he could get 'em; but who used to give no end of work also to little Nast, when the little, fat beggar hardly wanted it, and putting a few dollars in my pocket would have been a good-natured thing" (223).[pages:21, 23, 25, 37, 53-56,68, 80, 83-84, 86, 135-136, 161, 187, 192, 223]
Gunn writes that Nast is going to Sicily, "Little Nast has written from Genoa to Jack Edwards. He is going to Sicily to sketch Garibaldi's revolutionary doings for the Illustrated N.Y. News, which is, of course, a great secret. Sally always throws him over and professes utter indifference to him in conversation, now" (48).
Gunn talks about sketches from Nast, "Sol and others went off to Crook and Duff's and Alf and I presently did the same, after he had shown me some of his Japanese Washington sketches and some recently-received from little Tommy Nast, at Palerno, on Garibaldi revolution subjects" (103).
Gunn describes about a conversation with Sally Edwards about her love admirers, including Nast, "Meantime it must be remembered that Nast was a suitor and very much in earnest. But Sally hardly gave Haney what he designated his "quietus" in consequence of her preference for his rival; as I judged at the time his position was anomalous, the transition from a friend of the family, who had known these girls from their babyhood, to a lover, was too great to be at once understood or regarded as agreable. Then he had played too close a game, his reticence and undemonstrativeness were against him. His "crossness" and perhaps jealousy had displeased Sally at Grafton; she must have contrived these with Nast"s behavior.... (146-152).
Gunn describes a letter from Nast, "Jack Edwards got a letter from Nast this morning. He has been in Naples, abandoned it as unsafe, writes from Sicily and thinks his next letter will announce the time of his return" (169).
Gunn discusses the fiananical troubles of the "New York Illustrated News," "Little Nast not getting his salary remitted in England, borrowed Â£20 or Â£40 of the pugilist Heenan, who recently presented himself at the office of the Ill. News and demanded repayment" (191).[pages:48, 103, 146-152, 169, 191]
Sally tells Gunn that it's Nast's birthday when he sees them at the store: "I saw all of them in the store, smiling and saucy and Sally whispered that to- day was Somebody's birthday – little Nast's" (10).
Haney and Gunn have a conversation about Sally Edwards and Nast: "He regrets he ever made the offer; thinks it a mistake altogether; asserts he should not have done so but for her encouraging it by the assurance that Nast had got his dismissal. He spoke more than once of her questioning him during his suspense and passion, whether Nast would do? – I think that always occurs to him in connection with Sally now – it is the turning point of her character in his opinion. Further he supposed I might be exercising a morbid influence on her" (38)!
Gunn suspects Sally Edwards would marry Nast if he came back: "She set her cap at Honeywell a little, perhaps to convince Matty, he might be captured. If Nast came back, every way improved and as much in love as ever, she would probably marry him" (40).
Sally Edwards inquires about Nast, "She wanted to know if they'd heard anything of Nast at the "Ill. News" office, adding, with a look which said I will do it! though you say what you may – "Father and mother might like to know!" We had more confidences, some about Haney. Neither he nor Hayes turned up during the evening" (56).
Gunn mentions that Thomas Nast is working for Gluseppe Garibaldi in Europe: "Down-stairs, saw a photograph of Nast, which had just arrived, with letters from him. In consequence of his sending no address on his leaving England, Jack, his principal correspondent, didn't know where to write to him, until, I suppose, the arrival of the letter, which awaited our return from Grafton Centre. Nast is on Garibaldi's staff, has been under fire, rooms with Colonel Peard, "Garibaldi's Englishman," and writes that he has to rise at 3, to ride till 10 before breakfast, also that he expects to re turn to New York a general, apprending, as is Tommy's wont, a fancy sketch of himself in that capacity. As the girls wrote notelets to him, he responded in similar proportions. Matty's and Sally's, which I saw, are penned in the scrimpiest, most niggling of chirography, boyish and iterative to the last degree and ill-spelled. His portrait represents him in volunteer costume, a loose shirt (red flannel probably) and trousers, gaiters a la Zouave and mandarin cap, a la Anglais. As far as could be judged from the small size of the countenance, Nast is much improved, grown more manly, his nose defined, his whiskers sprouting. Enough of him for the present" (68&72).
Gunn includes an annotated newspaper engraving of Nast while working on Garibaldi's staff: "THOS. NAST, ESQ., OUR SPECIAL ARTIST, NOW ATTACHED TO GARIBALDI'S STAFF, IN HIS CALABRIAN COSTUME. [Gunn's handwriting] Copied from a similar photograph to the one sent to 745, but on an enlarged scale – drawn probally by Sol Eytinge. Makes him took a good deal older more manly, and much too tall" (69).
Gunn wants Sally to find a husband who will let them remain friends: "Get married Sally! take Nichols or Nast or any good fellow who'll love you and let us be friends always" (75-76).
Jack exhibits locks of hair from the Edwards' for Nast: "Sally reading "Chuzzlewit." Jack returning with Eliza, exhibited locks of hair from the entire family, designed for transmission to Nast" (77).
Sally refuses to admit interest in a photograph of Nast: "I discovered that some allusion on my part to "Chuzzlewit," in my talk on the eve of Nast's departure had made her desirous of reading it. This night I had brought a brief, ridiculously written article by one of its editors, from the Illustrated N.Y. News, accompanying a cut of Nast, from a similar photograph to the one sent to the family. Sally wouldn't allow that she possessed interest in the subject" (85).
Gunn recalls the letters Haney wrote after Sally Edwards' rejection: "In the letters he told her of his love for the family – its very name commending strangers to him – and, after his dismissal, counselled her against mistaking her feelings towards Nast or accepting him from any but the honest dictates of her heart, with infinite solicitude and tender magnanimity. I could well understand her saying that he had never appeared to so much advantage as under rejection. But he adhered to his conviction that she had betrayed a lack of kindness; intimating also that she might not be unwilling to encourage a renewal of his suit, now, – at all events that she has learnt to estimate him differently. I told him, as I think, that the girl only wishes to have his good will, being pretty well convinced that they never would have suited each other. His passion, she instinctively felt, was a serious affair, dreading the responsibility of becoming the wife of a man who could become exacting, who was too keen sighted and too much in earnest to be put off with mere liking such as would have satisfied Nast. This, her girlish hesitancy in such a crisis, little Tommy's passion, her supposition that Haney took possession of her too suddenly, the opposition of Anne and the others, all had their influence on Sally. Apropos of Nast, I find he was in love with a visitor at Mort Thomson's, before he knew Sally. The girl was from Rochester, engaged to be married, and Tommy actually visited that city, for love of her, I think subsequent to her becoming another man's wife – whether he knew it, I know not" (89-90).
Gunn describes a short letter and caricature of Fanny Fern drawn by Nast: "Jack was writing again to Nast, this evening, in answer to a letter just received from him. It was a very meagre one, containing no news, and a carica- ture of Fanny Fern – an imaginary copy of a photograph she destroyed in a fit of low spirits, as related by Ed. Welles. He, by the bye, has recently heard of a brother's death, which explains his absence from 745 of late" (95).
Sally probes Welles about Nast's past: "The girls were full of spirits and good-humor. Sally in the new dress looked capitally, and soon questioned Welles with characteristic dexterity about Nast's former flame and journey to Rochester, which "Tommy" had denied or concealed from her. Welles corroborated the information and Sally told me of her manoeuve. I am pretty sure she has kept back a sly item or two concerning her relations with Nast, indeed she allowed it by implication" (125).
Gunn and Sally Edwards debate Nast's past: "The little revelation about Nast's previous flame and Rochester expedition has effected a good deal, not to his advantage, in Sally's mind; she returned to the subject and compared herself to Tom Pinch on his discovery of the true character of Pecksniff. I defended Tommy, arguing that at his age the passion and the ignoring it was natural, if he had been older he might have known the chance of discovery rendered it the wiser course to admit the folly. "But," said Sally, "if he did it once, he may again with some other." Nast has evidently told unnecessarily strong fibs about the matter. Sally broached the subject as soon as possible. "I expected to see a redness of the eyes indicative o, in a mild way of crying," I suggested, "you bore the confirmation well and characteristicaly – have you spent the night in burning up letters?" "What have you got in your head, now?" she asked, laughing but curious, and then fell to talking of Nichols' gratification at a compliment she paid him" (127).
Gunn adds a side note about Nast's father: "I don't think I ever put down that Nast's father was one of Dodsworth's well-known brass band before. He died not long before Tommy's introduction to 745" (128).
Gunn details a secret correspondence between Sally and Nast: "Sally corresponded secretly with Tommy Nast, since his absence in Europe; he petitioned for it, said he couldn't go away without it. She has written him four letters, he more to her. I think the correspondence has ended now, whether by his or her cessation, I'm not sure, I imagine the former, as before telling me, she made me promise that I shouldn't pity or sympathize with her. How she contrived the correspondence is a secret. Eliza knows of it, is Sally's confidante. This is the "little confidence" heretofore alluded to" (155-156).
Gunn notices that Mrs. Edwards never speaks of Nast in Haney's presence: "Mr & Mrs E. came in and Haney going out to fetch Eliza home, Mrs E. took the opportunity to speak of Nast – she never mentions little Tommy in Haney's presence, I notice" (166).
Gunn wishes for Nast's safe return: "We have a friend this year with glorious Garibaldi, Of theatre des Edwards the capital Grimaldi, Not least in our esteem though mentioned last, Health and a safe return to artist-hero Nast" (230)![pages:10, 38, 40, 56, 68 & 72, 69(ill.), 75-76, 77, 85, 89-90, 95, 125, 127, 128, 155-156, 166, 230]
Nast's homecoming is described: "Nast arrived on Saturday, xx is a little wider and stouter, otherwise much as before. He was very cordially received at the house, especially by Mr. and Mrs. Edwards. We had all been at Newark on the Saturday, the Crocketts inviting us to spend two nights and Sunday with them. Anne came along, for the sake of propriety. The C's were very hospitable; we enjoyed ourselves x x went to church on Sunday morning x parson gave us hell with the bouquet gone. Nicholas's former wife's sisters and (their) father reviewed the family. x x Doesn't matter, now the artist is home again, however there's a dreadful persistency in Nicholas x x May the best man win!" (A very rough caricature intended for Nicholas and Nast tilting at one another, Sally looking on.) "Nast says the "Illustrated London News" proposes his going South to sketch; so you may see him before many weeks; at present he is sick. The "N.Y. News" hasn't paid him within several hundred dollars. He will draw for it; it has a new proprietor" (161-162).
Nast is said to have attended a birthday celebration for John: "Principally about the "flare," as Sally terms it, in honor of John's birthday, which is more or less described by all but Eliza; who descants ^|on| another party that the girls attended. The guests in honor of Jacks maturity were as follows: Haney, Hayes, Nast, Welles, Knudsen, Russell, Lane, Jack Crockett, Nicholas, Nichols, George Edwards, Tousey, Mr. and Mrs. Williston, Polhemus, Mort and Josey Brown, Susy Edney, Emmeline Price, Jo Crockett, Nettie, Miss Chapman and – I quote Sally's catalogue – "our seven selves." (169).
Jack explains Nast's indisposition: "Nast's indisposition, alluded to in Haney's last letter, is explained by Jack: he received "a hard knock on the head, in a railway collision between London and Liverpool, just before leaving England, and feels the effects of it yet" (170).
Nast acts in a cool manner towards Gunn upon arriving at the Edwards: "At 7, Nast came in. He had a little more moustache, was cool in manner towards me – I thought in reminiscence of a certain evening. He took off to church with Sally, Eliza and Jack, leaving Matty, Mr. and Mrs. Edwards, Haney, Knudsen and myself. I went out twice to get water-ice and ice-cream for Haney. Knudsen left, the church-goers returned, Anne, George Edwards and Tousey junior came in. I talked with Haney, Matty, Anne and Mr. and Mrs. Edwards – very little with Sally who, on her return, sat conversing with young Tousey. Towards the close of the evening, Eliza, Mat, Jack and Nast formed a group in a corner, the two latter doing lingual drolleries. I made some advances towards Tommy, which he received, with evident distrust or dislike, even manifesting an inclination to try his wit at my expense, when I retorted, but with goodwill to the little beggar, whom I wished to conciliate, for Sally's sake and that along alone, otherwise he might have gone hang" (177-178)!
Nast calls Sally out for speaking of the Rochester story: "The last two getting to whist with Mat and Eliza, I talked with Sally. She said that Nicholas had relinquished his suit; that Tommy had complained of her reserve and coolness, on his return, that she had spoken of the Rochester story, of which he had cleared himself. Anon, declaring that we mustn't talk to each other all the evening, she went to Welles" (183).
Gunn describes a conversation with Sally Edwards regarding Nast and Nicholas: "Of course Nast thinks Nicholas a conceited puppy and Nicholas dislikes Nast. Sally is evidently increasing in dissatisfaction with her good looking admirer. He has been comparatively affluent and, she says, is indolent – his good-looks, manner and past fortune combining to spoil him. Evidently Nicholas won't win. Of Nast, Sally confided but little, which was equivalent to confiding a great deal, admitting however that he was jealous and self-willed. She laughingly admitted that my interpretation of his rejection of my advances was correct" (190).[pages:161-162, 169, 170, 177-178, 183, 190]
Gunn spends an evening at the Edwards', noting that Nast is back from a trip to Washington: "Evening, to 745, meeting Sally, Eliza, John and Nast on the threshold, going to Chapin's, the first not walking with the last, but with her brother. Didn't accompany them, descended into basement, found Mr. and Mrs. E. Matty, Haney and Parton's mother. Very soon Jim came and we got to talking until his departure, within a short space before the return of the girls and their companions. Nast was asked about his Washington experience, I talked with Matty and others, Nast with Sally and the evening wore on till 11, when we, visitors, departed. 11" (19).
Gunn describes a scuffle between Nast and himself at the Edwards': "As, unless I took on armchair near them, I must have gone to the sofa, out of the social circle, I didm't do the latter, and presently, on a remark of Sally's, cut into the conversation. Nast didn't like it, I think; the little beggar tried girding at me when I as I happened to be in good spirits and tonguey, he got his payment with a spice of pepper to it. He supposes I talk against him behind his back, half intimated as much. I could trace a spice of Sol Eytinge's influence in his pupil's way ofregarding me. Where did I hear it said that Nast has Jewish blood in his veins? one of the girls ventilated it, I think, when Sally demurred at crediting it. His hair, nose and physique, his fond- ness for the opera are not antagonistic to the idea. That would instinctively bring Sol and him together, in sympathy, though I know Eytinge is ashamed of his stock. I have been scrupulously civil to "Tommy," and want to continue so, for the chances are in favor of his having Sally to wife – though it's by no means a sure thing – and for no other reason; showing him, however, that I can keep the whip-hand of him in talk. He has come back with his organ of self-esteem considerably enlarged; his manner of talking of the work of other artists is evidence of it. Yet a good deal of this is natural enough, in a young fellow fresh from one of the most miserable of revolutions in history. I'd like the little beggar, for Sally's sake, if he'd let me. Not withstanding which I turned her laugh on him, which of course he'd like" (23-24).
Sally tries to lend Nast a book at yet another gathering at the Edwards': "I talked mostly with Eliza; Sally, sitting by Nast, was diligently employed in narrating the plot of the "Newcomes" to him, girl-fashion, having the volume in her hand; which she presently proposed to lend him. Little Tommy's literary tastes are of the rawest; I didn't wonder at his not taking it. Matty Bellew dislikes England. looking goodhumored, sat in the direction of Haney, Polhemus on the near side. Which young man is rather a slow coach in conversation, having a talent for silence. Presently Nast invited Eliza to the theatre, of course after Sally" (26-27).
Gunn believes Nast will win the court of Sally Edwards: "There are exceptions to Jerrold's axiom asserting that that position is the best one for taking aim at a woman's heart and Sally is one of them. Nast will win, in default of a better suitor" (32-33).
Gunn states that Nast talked Garibaldi to Sally at the Edwards': "Sunday. To Chapin's in the morning. On descending from the gallery found Jack, Matty and Sally waiting for somebody, probably Tommy. Mat got tired of it and I walked home with her, leaving her, her father and mother at the door – they had kept on t'other side of the way. In doors till evening, then to 745. Mr. and Mrs E. Matty, Anne and Haney present, Sally, Eliza, Nast and Jack at Chapin's, whence they returned in due time. And Tommy took up his position beside the "ravager" on the sofa, and talked Garibaldi to her till the time for breaking up" (33).
Gunn feels unwelcome while Sally and Nast converse: "Anne, too, is making up for her dep helping to deprive Sally of one lover by abetting another. When Eliza, at the piano, got tiffed at the talking, Anne wanted her to keep on, (for the benefit of Sally and Tommy; who conversed safely, under its cover.) They get along, as I augured, favorably – little Podgey will win, sure enough, and if he don't detest me it's a pity! Well, perhaps he has a right to – I'm almost inclined to justify him. Somehow, for, I think, the first time in my life in that basement, I felt as though I were unwelcome – as though my arrival had imposed some restraint on what was in progress" (53-54).
Gunn describes a brief encounter with Nast before feeling ignored at the Edwards': "There was also another inducement, a Mrs. Galusha, neéSarah Gay, being of the party; which person is she of Rochester habitation, whom Tommy Nast was once smitten with, a friend of the Thomsons' and of Jim Parton's sister. This, barring the personal item, Tommy told me in a constrained and grudging manner. I tried him with a remark or two, then lapsed into silence and looked over newspapers, finding my Fort Moultrie drawing in the "London News." So we three sat, in silence, except when Tommy said a word or two to Tousey, until the unlocking of the street- door and the girls' laughter was heard above...I wouldn't wonder if Tommy hasn't talked Eytinge about me to the girls; of course being angry with him I suspect the little beggar. If so, it's a good illustration of cause and effect: I tell Mort Thomson (on being asked, not before) the truth about Sol's immaculate wife – then strumpet – and, three or four years after, his resentment turns up in the basement of 745" (67-68)!
Haney confirms that Nast and Sally Edwards are engaged: "Talking of Nast and Sally Edwards, Haney confirms my impression that they are "engaged." It is curious to find that both he and I have inclined to backing Nicholas, wishing that the gentlemanly widower had given us an opportunity to volunteer a few words of advice in re Sally" (81).
Gunn quotes Alf Waud, who talks disparagingly of Nast: "He [Alf Waud] began to talk objurgation of Nast, proposing to caricature him as Sol Eytinge's dog (See 110-11). Nast, it appears, is a very cocky and captious little begger in the office; he comes there very early in the morning and is exceedingly industrious and would illustrate the whole of the paper, if they'd let him. "I told him," said Alf Waud, "that we (Sol and himself) should be discharged or get an offer of $10 a week, reduced salary. He toadies Sol and Sol likes it. He imitates him in everything, tries chaff, but is soon knocked over and dreadfully offended... "He's a mean little beggar," I said, catching the tone of Alf's manner – it does one good to abuse a fellow you don't like, you feel better afterwards. "Yes," said Waud, "though he did go to the expense of paying $33 for a diamond- ring to give to that girl he is fond of. I hear all about that, too, though they do make such a dreadful mystery about it." Alf had seen the ring, recommended the jeweller, indeed; Tommy got the thing a great bargain. Alf had spoken before of Mort Thomson's approaching marriage with "Fanny Fern's daughter," about which Nast and Eytinge conversed, affecting mystery" (85-88).
Gunn describes Nast's vulgar demeanor at the Edwards: "Sally and Nast and Eliza and Tousey were also church-goers; I did not see them until I had descended into the basement, where I was conversing with Haney and Mrs. Edwards, when they joined us. Tommy went over and sat, rather prominently and awkwardly, beside Sally in front of the piano. Haney, I and Mrs E. (paterfamilias never has much to say) found enough to talk of, and rather left the others to themselves. Tommy had tried a smart saying at and come off as usual, in consequence. I don't think the young fellow showed at all well, in his new relation. At such a time, if ever, a man – a young man, too – should be kind and friendly, disposed to goodwill to all around him, full of delicious humility, triumph, grateful for the happiness which has fallen to him; in short as good as his nature is capable of. There was none of this; I am deceived if there was not latent vulgar triumph, a tendency to insolent assertion of his luck; his conquest. Sally, too, didn't look too happy, or too much at ease, beside him. She flushed up occasionally, giggled and talked, with awkward intervals of silence. He did a little buffonery, too, with the girls in general, and, squat on a music stool, the whole of his podgy figure visible, didn't appear to advantage. I made a point to do only the initial courtesies to the girls, unless they indicated goodwill towards a little chat, which good humored Matty presently did, when I talked awhile to her, as did Haney, joining us. Eliza, on the sofa, cultivated Tousey, or laughed at Tommy's sallies – for she is temporarily of the Nasty faction" (91-92).
Gunn says that Sally Edwards has accepted Nast's marriage proposal, but doesn't believe it's a good match: "Jim Parton had asked him [Haney] today, "if he had heard the news?" Haney knew what news; Tommy's acceptation. Jim understood that it was to be a long engagement, in which case I wont ensure its consummation; for Tommy mayn't wash. Not that Sally has not a much more favorable estimate of him than Haney and I, who agree perfectly on that head; I have chronicled her view of Tommy's character, as confided to me at Grafton. But I do fear that the girl has gone miserably and wilfully into a match that won't result in her happiness... Mrs. Edwards has been very tender with him; her woman's nature comprehending his case and affording him quick sympathy. "I wish you'd have fallen in love with Matty," I said. "I can't!" he answered, though he averred that she'd be the most helpful mate of the three. So" (93-96).
Gunn mulls over the irony of Nast and Sally's relationship: "I should have liked to have felt friendly to Sally's husband; to have shaken him by the hand on the wedding- day and to have wished him happiness with all my soul; to have touched her cheek with a kiss, and have bidden God bless her! but it won't be so, and so let the matter rest. Possibly I do him injustice, after all. I hope so. For the hundredth time I observe how curiously events hinge on one another: Haney introduced Nast as a substitute for Cahill; that his absence mightn't be felt in our little circle. He thought Tommy might do for Mat or Eliza – never apprehending that he was thereby risking the realization of Benedick's simile; – "The flat transgression of a schoolboy who, being overjoyed at finding a bird's next, shows it to his companion, and he steals it" (96-97).
Gunn includes a caricature by Waud of Eytinge and Nast: "At 745. Morris, Nast and Polhemus there. Nothing of import transpired; Nast and Sally as usual. By the way Alf Waud gave me a rather felicitous caricature of Sol. Eytinge and Tommy, the latter represented as the dog of the former; Sol himself as an odious- looking Jew old-clothesman" (124-125).
Cahill exaggerates Nast's condescending manners: "Writing and loafing till 5, then downtown, passing Nast; whom Cahill met subsequently, walking with Eliza, Matty in the rear, and, relating it to me, burlesqued Tommy's assumption of the airs of a man about town. I thought his face looked flabby and Jewish. One always finds a man's face disagreeable when one dislikes him" (147).
Gunn comments again on Nast's behaviors: "The elder folks were cordial, as they always are. I think Nast has slackened his attentions to his future father and mother-in-law, even to half-ignoring their presence, and that the quick-sighted woman perceives it. When we left (I rose at a little before 11), Morris began abusing Tommy as a nuisance, saying that he did nothing but monkeyisms, and thinking it must "disgust" the girls. I couldn't help grinning to find how generally conscious everybody is of his offensiveness – or envious of his popularlity! I walked a few steps with Morris and returning, passed Nast and Tousey, who had just quitted 745. The little chuff saw me" (161-162).
Gun speculates that the Mort Thomson and Grace Eldredge marriage will escalate Nast's and Sally's: "Jim warned Haney on this score, once, intimating that Grace would develop like her mother. Maybe that Haney was flattered by the idea, as most men would be – I thought I detected this in his talk this evening. Both he and I agreed that this marriage would probably accelerate Sally's and Nast's, Haney fixing it for the autumn of this year" (181-182).
Hayes tells Gunn that the engravers like Alf waud because he keeps them busy: "Alf would go, though Nast wanted to; they (the proprietors of the paper) had either to quarrel with or let Waud go. The advantages he possessed over Tommy were extreme obstinacy and the capacity for writing letters. Tommy is very industrious and on a regular salary – gets, Hayes supposes, $25 or up ward a week. "We (the engravers) "like him;" said Hayes, "for he keeps us steadily busy. When we had nothing but geniuses to draw for us, we had to stand idle for two or three days sometimes; until they felt like working" (183).
Gunn believes that Waud's Charleston paper was merely recounted by Nast from the "Illustrated News": "Haney speaking incidentally of a story about Will Waud's starting an illustrated paper in Charleston, brought to 745 by Nast, I didn't scruple to characterize it as one of those inventions which had their origin in the artists' room of the "Illustrated News" and which Mr. Nast only retailed – which I've no doubt is the simple truth" (192).
Gunn believes that Haney holds a grudge against Nast: "Mr. Edwards read aloud Fanny's article in the "Ledger" about her daughter's marriage; all of us (barring Haney and myself) manifesting an inclination to sniff at it. Not much transpired this evening; I think Haney and I spoke only to Matty, of the girls; for Anne, she went and sat to'ther side of Tommy, only becoming momentarily prominent in answer to a gird of Haney's. (He will "not willingly let die" the rememberance that she was against him in his wooing of Sally)" (203).[pages:19, 23-24, 26-27, 32-33, 33, 53-54, 67-68, 81, 85-88, 91-92, 93-96, 96-97, 124-125(ill.), 147, 161-162, 181-182, 183,192, 203]
Gunn provides his opinion on the Nast-Sally-Haney relationship: "In default of others, Sally is making friends with the kindly, but sometimes wearisome Dane, whom Nast regards as a Nass and a Bore. Haney and I smoked many pipes and after midnight went out for beer, and I walked to 16th street with him, where we sat on Mrs. Potter's doorstep conversing. I find he still loves Sally – loves and hates her in equal proportion. He believes, and I think with reason, that the girl ridicules him behind his back and sees that Nast triumphs in his success. I believe he is right, for this reason; Tommy isn't strong conversationally and when hard-up for topics, a little detraction is so easy. It looks smart, too. The present aspect of the lovers – if one may call them so – entirely justifies my estimate of Nast, communicated to Sally on the memorable evening proceeding his departure for Europe. She is not satisfied with her bargain. She sits silent beside him at times, and when she thinks Haney observes it, talks to Nast, laughs and affects to be entertained. The pair don't manage their wooing well, and everybody seems to resent the sofa business, with a unanimity which is down-right funny" (17-18).
Gunn provides detail on the upcoming marriage of Sally and Nast, also mentioning that Haney will not attend: "It is arranged that Sally shall go to Nast's home, when they are married, his mother residing there, then, as now. (Nast lives near the Weehaken Ferry, some distance uptown.) This is a sensible arrangement, and if Sally has the kindness and wit to accept her husband's mother, the honest old German woman, (who can speak no language but her own) may become an agreeable and useful feature in the young wife's little domestic world. Haney doesn't want to be present at the marriage; he projects an assumed necessity for a visit to Philadelphia when the time comes. I should like to see it well enough, having an insatiable desire to be a Looker-On at everything; but it would involve the necessity of shaking Nast by the hand, which would be hypocrisy, as I don't like the little beggar and he knows it. And you always hate a man the more, if you try to force your inclinations and be civil to him. So its just as well that I shall probably be in Canada, when Sally Edwards drops the latter half of her name" (19).
Gunn describes a boating excursion in which Sally Edwards keeps to herself: "The excursion would have proved but slow, but for little Selwyn, who kept up an incessant fire of amusingly bad conundrums; which the girls laughed at; which eclipsed Morris, and which Nast tried to receive with congenial jocularlity. Sally's headache had gone, I think; she sat at the t'other end of the boat and said but little" (39).
Mrs. Galusha remembers Nast from his frequent visits at the Thomsons: "We found Mrs. G. (nee Sally Gay and Nast's former flame) in the garden, in a sun-bonnet. She appeared tallish, with not unpleasing features, eyes, I fancied, a little too near together. She is cousin to Mort Thomson, his father being brother to her mother; hence her past visits at the Thomsons in Brooklyn and New York, when Tommy Nast was a frequenter of the house, and his captivation; to which Rogers had alluded, saying that Tommy was "quite smitten." Our business was to invite her and her husband to join us in a fishing and boating excursion that afternoon; to which she consented, in case of his return from Rochester" (50).
Nast informs Mrs. Galusha of Fanny Fern's dislike for the Edwards: "The next morning Mrs. Galusha, in ignorance of the incident, called at 745, when the family thought it strange that she made no allusion to their invitation. Nast meeting her subsequently at the Thomsons', took upon himself the retaliation of behaving coolly to his ex-flame, when she inquired the reason and obtained it and a discovery of Fanny's characteristic bit of dislike to the Edwardses. By the way Mrs. Galusha was also a visitor to Mrs. Sol Eytinge" (51).
Gunn, Jack, and Haney discuss the Nast's upcoming marriage: "The wise Anne has incurred Nast's detestation by cackling some nonsense about Frank Leslie having said he had been the making of Tommy, and talk of his antecedents. (He did sweep out the Bryan Gallery as "boy" in the time when his father was a musician in Dodsworth's band. Cahill recollects him; he was a bearded Teuton, not podgy, like his son.) Jack complains to Haney that Nast "seems without feeling." The marriage is to be celebrated on Thursday afternoon, at about 2 or 3, only the family, including George and Harriet, being present. There have been visits to Nast's mother on the part of the Edwardses; she cannot speak English. Generally the culmination towards matrimony has made 745 very dull; Nast takes Sally to entertainments alone, not extending such courtesies to his future sisters, whom Haney does not feel called upon to "treat" as of old. Yet he goes to the house as usual – paying for it, I think. He left me by 10 1/2 o'clock (207).
Gunn passes Nast and Eytinge downtown; Nast is laughing: "Tuesday. Scoring up Diary. Down town in the afternoon. Past Sol Eytinge and Nast in Broadway, the former looking corpulent, the latter laughing" (207).
Gunn describes Sally Edwards and Thomas Nast's wedding: "Sally and Nast were married at 8 A. M. instead of after dinner, as proposed, a Philadelphian acquaintance of the family officiating. They started for Albany by the 11 o'clock train. A. M., on the Hudson river railroad. In an hour's time Mat, Eliza, Jack and a Miss Griswold returned from Chapin's. Friendly chaff and spar with the girls, especially with Eliza. Hints about "all their friends deserting" them an the like, involving the employment of a little wholesome irony. Left at the usual hour. Haney intended going to Nyack to day and I suppose did it. Miss Griswold is a sister of Mrs Weddle's. George Edwards came in with the others, but stayed out long. He has got a second lieutenantcy in some volunteer regiment, and is on duty recruiting" (219).
Ann Edwards tells Gunn about Sally Nast's plans at the bridal reception: "Then the company, led by Mort. Brown and Haney drank the toast and cheered, I did the former with about as much cordiality as I felt. Then Nast returned thanks in a jerky common-place manner combined with a touch of buffoonery, and proposed awkwardly the health of Mr. and Mrs. Edwards. Ann, meantime, told me that the young couple had taken part of a house in 45th street and that Sally cooked dinner for her husband for the first time to day. The poor old German mother is, it seems, not to live with her son and newly-acquired daughter. They will keep no servant. They made all their preparations without taking anybody into their confidence, said Ann, but had got very nice things – she was surprised on seeing them. The young man had a decided will of his own and was very emphatic in expressing his likes and dislikes; Sally must defer to them at present. To this I talked quiet irony and commonplace, and presently, on Sally's return from a brief absence from the room, when she seated herself at the other end of it and when Nast relinquished her side for a few minutes (which he was very chary of doing) I went up and offered a few words of congratulatory chaff. She had been so encircled by the others, I said, that I couldn't do it before, likening her to a wedding-cake and them to the sugar on it. The loss was hers, she said. I had thought she had looked her best at a distance, but laughing, she opened her mouth and spoiled that impression during our momentary interview" (232-233).[pages:17-18, 19, 39, 50, 51, 207, 219, 232-233]
Gunn includes a newspaper engraving of Nast and McLenan from the "Illustrated N.Y. News": "Drawn evidently by Sol Eytinge and both very good, only the relative size is hardly preserved, Nast looking shorter and podgier. Put a little more conceit in the look and it's Tommy to the life" (16).
Sally and Nast run upstairs when Gunn arrives at the Edwards': "To 745, to join Haney. Saw Nast and Sally run off upstairs (after a look-in after church) as Mat let me in" (44).
Gunn describes Mr. and Mrs. Nast's entrance at a dinner event: "A vigorous ring at the street door bell denotes Mr and Mrs Tommy Nast, whereat Matty (who has being chatting with me) surmises that their dinner hasn't turned out a success. Sally rustles in, bends over and kisses pap as he sits in his chair, welcomes Hayes and subsides into conversation. Nast enters fatly and facetiously (he seems to do the buffoon business on most occasions, now,) looking exceedingly like such a German Jew as you would look for in the player of the ophocliede in a brass band. His hair is very black and worn rather long, his face flabby. Mat tells me the pair "have a servant, now." We talk for half an hour, standing or sitting, then Hayes and I go off to W" (58).
Nast declines Gunn's invitation for drinks: "Meantime Waud was talking with Nast who had come in with Eytinge. As drinks had just been ordered I invited Tommy to join us; he declined civilly, on the plea that he had to go to work" (71).
Gunn describes Nast's performance in a play: "Then followed Punch and Judy, the puppets being replaced by living persons, the stage appropriately enlarged. Nast played Punch, Jack, Judy, and the rest of the characters, including devil and hangman. This was but a mode- rate success, for it frightened the children. Punch's voice, too, might have been better, though Nast did the London street hero pretty well" (116).
Nast is mentioned in a poem by Jesse Haney: "There's Nast, who'll paint You Zouave or saint, Or any kind of picter. His better half Will make you laugh At servants who afflict her" (143).
Gunn and Haney talk about the relationship between the Nasts and Edwards: "It seems that neither she nor her husband are very frequent visitors at 745, now; their indifference perhaps amounting to a want of feeling. Nast does not even care to drop in on his daily returns uptown. The girls visit them, persisting in doing so... Since then a coolness has occurred between Nast and Eytinge" (183-185).
Gunn says that Nast and Sally were at the Edwards: "Nast and Sally were present; didn't mix much with the rest, but laughed superfluously at Miss Rogers sayings" (207).
Gunn finds Nast at Strong's store: "The little man [Strong] was chatty, and I walked back with him to his store, where I beheld Tommy Nast, who figures extensively in this week's "Notions." (? Isn't this a sign of decadence in payment on the part of the Ill. News – I have heard of a cutting down of salaries there" (221).
When Gunn visits the Edwards, Ann tells him that Nast is drawing caricatures in the pew at Chapin's: "Ann and her father there; all the rest having gone to bed, the girls tired out with a walk back from the Central Park, in company with their brother, Hayes, Selwyn and Pratt. (?) Ann hadn't been to Chapin's for the reason that "Mr Nast cut up so, making grimaces and drawing caricatures in the pew, that it was impossible to listen" (225).
Gunn includes a newspaper clipping in which Nast is mentioned: "Among the persons who entertain a profound dis- like for John Bonner is the celebrated cartoonist, Thomas Nast Bonner failed to appreciate Nasts power as an artist, and deliberately "sat upon" him, modifying the sketches he proposed, and refusing to publish any of Nasts most powerful efforts. Bonner was pro-slavery, and hence would not tolerate the artist's anti-slavery cartoons" (253).[pages:16(ill.), 44, 58, 71, 116, 143, 183-185, 207, 221, 225, 253]
Gunn includes a newspaper engraving of himself by Nast: "Sketch of myself in campaign- rig, by Nast, introduced in a big two-page drawing in "Harper's Weekly." The portrait obviously taken from a carte de visite photo I sat for at Frederick's, in Broadway, before my departure for England, in 1863" (5).
Sir Percy Wyndham tells Gunn that he knew Nast from Italy: "He knew Nast in Italy; said he was always with Peard, of whom people made too much" (44).
Gunn says Nast stood his ground against accusations: "He tried Nast relative to caricatures of F. F. and youngest child, but didn't do much – Tommy stood his ground well. I saw it, sitting in the Courier Office" (141).
Gunn includes a printed drawing of McClellan by Nast: "GENL. McCLELLAN AT ANTIETAM. Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1863, by THOMAS NAST, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York" (275).[pages:5(ill.), 44, 141, 275(ill.)]
Gunn includes a newspaper clipping of Julia Nast's death, an apparent drug overdose: "MISS NAST DEAD. Daughter of the Noted Cartoonist Expired Suddenly in New York. Miss Julia Nast, daughter of Thomas Nast, of this place, died suddenly on Saturday last in the house of Mrs. Elizabeth B. Grannis, No. 33 East Twenty Second street, New York. Dr. O'Hanlon held an autopsy and gave fatty degeneration of the heart as the cause of death. The body was buried at Woodlawn, Wednesday. Miss Nast was a trained nurse and like many others of her profession, had become accustomed to using drugs as a stimulant when fatigued and when troubled with insomnia. Her friends think that she took an overdose of Friday night and from this, death resulted. She has been troubled with a severe cold recently. [handwritten by Gunn] June 1899" (116).
Haney tells Gunn that Nast is a father: "Mr Nast is a happy father, if you have not already heard. Little girl about four weeks old at this present time of writing. Mother and child doing well and father very proud and happy" (164).
Hayes and Gunn talk catch up on acquaintances: "Talk of the two Wauds, Eytinge and Nast. W. Waud is at work on the Illustrated, replacing Nast, subsequent to a row between the latter and Sol, apropos of Mrs Nast's objection to receive Mrs Sol Eytinge as an acquaintance. Hayes' wife is with her friends down east. Alf Waud, according to his acquaintance, came back full of soldier manners and oaths" (170).
Gunn describes Thomson's attempt to bully Nast: "Then he attempted a similar thing in Nast, who had introduced a caricature of Fanny (not at all a good one and only recognizable from the little curls and hair-tendrils with which she surrounds her raddled old face) in a comic picture in the illustrated N.Y. News. Meeting Tommy in Spruce Street, nearly opposite the Courier office, from the window of which Haney surveyed the whole scene, Thomson threatened Nast with personal vengeance if he "dared" &c., but Tommy proved singularly cool and the bully slunk away to his father who waited ata distance, with the big stick ! He really seems to have constituted himself his son's body guard. I saw a ludicrous caricature of the scene by Tommy himself, at 745, in which he had represented himself in an awful funk, shedding tears of contrition before a gigantic adversary – and a double opera-glass protruding out of the Courier window" (180-181)![pages:116, 164, 170, 180-181]
Haney updates Gunn on the Nast's: "He says the Nast household is satisfactory. Sally suiting her husband admirably. He thinks her very handsome and clever and she, though not capable of overmuch affection, has chose well and does her duty. Haney goes to see them but not too often, Nast's range of conversation being but limited, eked out with buffoonery, intolerable to Haney from past associations. Sally behaves well in wanting the old German mother to live with them, but she has a house of her own in the neighborhood. Tommy, by the way, draws big pictures for the Harper's, very effective, but in coarse taste" (35).
Gunn visits the Edwards; Thomas and Sally Nast were there and invite him to visit: "The baby was asleep in an adjoining room. Nast seems much as usual; he was comparatively friendly, and did practical jocularies towards Jack and his wife, Sally appears to advantage as a young mother: the baby, when arrayed for departure, was gorgeously apparrelled. Both husband and wife invited me to visit them "before I went off," Nast seconding his wife's invitation" (69).[pages:35, 69]
Gunn describes a visit to Sally and Thomas Nast, in which Gunn and Nast discuss their initial misconceptions about each other; Gunn knows that the two love each other: "The meal was a good plain one, nicely served, comprising simply oyster soup and roast beef. Nast appeared friendly, almost assiduously so, and Sally showed pleasantly. After dinner I looked over innumerable pictures of Nast's, appertaining to his visit to England, the Heenan and Sayers fight, his Garibaldian experiences, and later work, on Harper's and other miscellaneous subjects. Among the latter were a series of sketches, a la John Martin, illustrative of Paradise Lost, done to order for a Connecticut Yankee who is going to get up a panorama on the subject. Sally and her husband's talk about the man was not without humor. Barring a little carelessness in anatomy – the result of haste – the drawings were excellent. There was a little awkward consciousness of the novelty of our relative positions at first, hence I presently spoke, saying (as I felt) that I was heartily glad to be there, as I desired to leave none but friendly recollections behind me on my coming departure for England – that we had possibly misjudged each other abominably hitherto, and so on. Nast responded in friendly sort and we shook hands. He had got his original conceptions of me from Sol Eytinge, and I could easily imagine how just they were. Subsequent to Nasts marriage and refusal to allow Sally to associate with Allie (or Maggie as Nast called her) Sol led him a dog's life at the Illustrated News Office, and Alf Waud helped Sol to do it...But alls well that ends well, and I am well content to know that Sally loves her husband as much as she is capable of loving anybody, and that he is both proud and fond of her They told me their troubles since they were married – how indignant Mrs Edwards was at Nasts hiring a servant for Sally, declaring that she was "going on just like an American girl." "When I could afford it!" said Nast, very truly. The folks at 745 would hardly come to see 'em during this episode. I stayed till 11, and came away with the cartes de visites of both Sally and Nast in my pocket. A dank and drizzly ride back to my dreary boarding- house – which I shall soon quit forever" (193-198).[pages:193-198]
Thomas Nast was a visitor to Pfaff's, and also won fame as the political cartoonist who brought down the Tweed Ring after the war (62).
Thomas Nast's cartoons Americanized Father Christmas and Saint Nicholas, lending a Utopian language to the Christian holiday (125).[pages:62, 118, 125]
Nast drew "new and original" caricatures for the book that accompanied Fox's Volume II of Humpty Dumpty that played at the Olympic Theatre in the 1868-69 season (433).[pages:433]
Nast's involvement with the Pfaff's bohemians is discussed in the larger context of his work for the popular New York-based magazine Frank Leslie's Illustrated Paper. Paine writes, "The Leslie editorial office was frequented by most of the illustrators and writers of that period. Miss Croly, who signed herself 'Jenny June', was often there. Also came Richard Henry Stoddard, then in the fulness of early manhood and power; Mortimer Thompson, whose pen-name was 'Doesticks'; and all the rest of that blithe and talented crew. 'Doesticks' was regularly employed on the Tribune, but did frequent assignments for Leslie's, and Eytinge or Nast, sometimes both, accompanied him. Often in their rounds they brought up at Pfaff's beer-cellar, on Broadway near Bleecker Street--a bohemian resort, long since vanished and now become historic. Here they would find 'Miles O'Reilly', George Arnold, Frank Bellew, Fitz-James O'Brien and a host of other good fellows. The boy was happy to be seen in this crowd of notables and felt that he was getting on. In turn, they doubtless found the 'fat little Dutch boy' amusing. They took him to theaters and other cozy resorts and 'showed him the town'. It was not so big a town then, but one feels, somehow, that there was more comradeship, more characteristic personality, more of the feeling and flavor of art than we find here to-day" (21-22).[pages:21-22,79(ill),107(ill),114(ill),141(ill),273(ill),280(ill),365(ill),434(ill),549(ill),550(ill)]
Parry reprints Nasts's sketch from Harper's Weekly, September 9, 1882, "Thomas Nast on Oscar Wilde's Criticism of American Stoves" on p. 145. Parry also reprints "Low Jinks Cartoon: 'The Poet Lariat Contest'" by Thomas Nast from The Annals of the Bohemian Club, San Francisco, Vol. 3, 1887-1895 p. 223.
Parry writes that as "Bohemianism" moved away from its more scandalous associations of the Pfaff's days, many authors who would previously had nothing to do with Bohemianism felt "safe" contributing to the Philadelphia periodical Bohemia, writing about non-Bohemian topics. In light of this change, Parry writes that "A cartoon by Thomas Nast sent to Bohemia a few days before his death felt a bit lonely in the fashionable company of all this Creme de Boheme" (162).[pages:145(ill.),162,223(ill.)]
Starr writes that in March, 1861, Nast, a "familiar face" at Pfaff's Cave, was absent. Described by Starr as "the roly-poly fledgling of the New York Illustrated News, Nast was in Washington for Lincoln's inauguration (3).
Starr writes that in the days prior to the Civil War, like many others in New York, the "Pfaffians were exposed increasingly to the clamour of a world beyond their ken. Something like a revolution was afoot in the realm of journalism, a revolution that would lift these light-hearted pranksters from their subterranean retreat ad whirl them in its vortex. Soon O'Brien, Aldrich, Thomson, Williams, and Stedman, together with others in Clapp's happy coterie--Charles G. Halpine (who stammered to fame at Pfaff's, speaking inadvertantly of 'H-H-Harriet Beseecher Bestowe'), William Conant Church, William Swinton, E.H. House, Charles Henry Webb, a couple of artists, Frank H. Bellew and Thomas Nast: in all more than half of the identifiable clientele at the Cave--would take the field along with hundreds of other youths of like mind to participate in the greatest undertaking in the history of journalism" (9).
During Byington's "pilgrimage," during the fighting in Pennsylvania, other reporterse never got close enough to the battle to see the action. Nast got as close as Carlisle, thirty miles north of the action, where he "sketched the shelling of the New York militia by a detachment of Confederates with a single battery." Afterwards, Nast was imprisoned in Harrisburg for being related by marriage to a women seen around town wearing a Confederate flag (209).
Homer and Nast are described by Starr as the members of "the artists' contingent of the Bohemian brigade" who gained the "widest renown." Starr writes: "Nast was the volatile politcal cartoonist whose influence survives most obviously in the form of the Democratic donkey, the Republican elephant, and the Tammany tiger, all of which he made famous in Harper's Weekly" (354).[pages:3,9,209,354]
The Vault at Pfaff's
27 Memorial Drive West, Bethlehem, PA 18015