Horace Greeley was born in 1811 near Amherst, New Hampshire, to a poor farming family. Though physically feeble, Greeley had an affinity for books and tried for a printing apprenticeship at the age of eleven. He became an apprentice three years later in Vermont, where he learned the business rapidly and sent most of his earnings to his father. Greeley went back to farm life at the age of twenty before going to seek his fortune (Appleton 734). Greeley fostered this rags-to-riches story, claiming to have arrived in New York City in 1831 with only twenty-five dollars in his pocket. Starr writes, "Already the myth of Horace Greeley, the moralist in shining armor, the poor Vermont boy with a hatful of type who had worked hard and lived right and made good, the homely philosopher, the eccentric personality, the national oracle, towered almost frighteningly over the man himself” (18). He spent a few years working as a type-setter and printer before turning to journalism. His first article appeared on March 22, 1834 in the New Yorker, of which he became editor and publisher (Derby 131).
In 1841 Greeley founded the New York Tribune, which “set a new standard in American journalism by its combination of energy in newsgathering with good taste, high moral standards, and intellectual appeal” (Nevins). During this time, he also lectured, including in several church fairs and festivals (Odell 687), and authored several books, most notably The American Conflict (Derby 131). Greeley “was an egalitarian who hated and feared all kinds of monopoly, landlordism, and class dominance” (Nevins). He became a follower of Fourierism and spoke against Southern slavery and wage slavery (Tribune, June 20, 1845). These personal views served as ammunition for Henry Raymond, who rivaled Greeley as editor of the Times (Lause 35-37). During this time, Greeley was considered one of “the dominant figures in the literary and intellectual stratum” (Boynton 328).
As the Tribune grew in popularity, it became a place of employment for many Pfaffians, including Bayard Taylor, William Henry Fry, Charles T. Congdon, and F. J. Ottarson. Greeley’s association with Pfaff’s grew out of his friendship with Henry Clapp, Jr., who once described Greeley as “a self-made man that worships his creator” (Winter, Old Friends 62). Greeley was also patron of Pfaff’s (Hyman 56-61) and was acquainted with Walt Whitman, who felt that Greeley contributed to discussions and ideas but was not a great man. However, Whitman acknowledged that “I ought to like him--and do--for he was very sweet and kind to me” (Traubel 209). Greeley is listed among several prominent literary figures who gathered at the home of the Cary sisters in the 1850s (Derby 250).
In addition to his journalistic work, Greeley also wrote about his travels--Glances at Europe (1851) and An Overland Journey from New York to San Francisco in the Summer of 1859 (1860)--published some of his lectures in Hints Toward Reforms, and edited a collection of public records entitled History of the Struggle for Slavery Extension or Restriction in the United States (1856). Greeley’s popularity declined after the Civil War, in part because of his vacillations during the war. The decline can also be attributed to the fact that "he would not take a clear position about it" and “before the Civil War the Tribune had been Horace Greeley; after the war there was no such close identity” (Nevins).
In 1871, Greeley ran for the office of President of the United States. His campaign was filled with hardship and disappointments as critics mounted an “exceptionally abusive campaign” against him (Nevins). He “was attacked as a traitor, a fool, an ignoramus, and a crank, and was pilloried in merciless cartoons by Nast and others, including Frank H. T. Bellew. He took the assaults much to heart, saying later that he sometimes doubted whether he was running for the presidency or the penitentiary” (Nevins). Greeley’s bid for office failed miserably and he was left bitterly disappointed and hurt, feeling as though he was “the worst beaten man who ever ran for high office” (Nevins).
In 1872, he returned to the Tribune eager to resume editorship of the paper. Unfortunately, Greeley discovered that there was no longer a place for him there. After this “last blow,” his “mind and body broke, and he died insane on November 29” (Nevins). Clara Louise Kellogg recalls that Greeley’s last words, “I know that my Redeemer liveth,” referenced her performance of Handel’s Messiah which Greeley particularly admired (209). Dignitaries including the President and Vice-President attended his funeral. His failures were soon overshadowed by his numerous contributions to society as one of the “dominant figures in the literary and intellectual stratum” (Boynton 328).
Whitman shared Greeley's opinion that the Crystal Palace Exhibition was "a thing to be seen once in a lifetime" (120).
According to Brooklyn journalist Charles Skinner, in 1858, compared with Whitman's dress (or affected costume), "Even Horace Greeley, who affected a rustic make-up was more conventional in his costume" (212).
Clapp worked for a while with Greeley and Brisbane to try to "popularize the doctrines of Fourier and socialism" (229).[pages:73,120,169,177,212,229,389,427,433]
According to Baldensperger, Clemenceau saw Horace Greeley as "the perfect type of a political journalist, enterprising and clean, struggling for the enlightenment of the masses, firmly advocating well-defined principles" (19).[pages:19]
"Bryant, Irving, Halleck, and Greeley led the way for a succeeding group of self-educated men" (325).
"During his fifteen years in New York, Greeley and Bryant, two newspaper editors, were perhaps the dominant figures in the literary and intellecgtual stratum" (328).[pages:325, 328, 385]
Brockway discusses the Tribune staff in general and Greeley's role more specifically.[pages:viii, 70, 71, 98, 117]
There is an entire chapter called "Horace Greeley."
Clapp references an anecdote by Greeley about one of his "compositor's" views on drinking (1).[pages:1]
Greeley's "change of hat" is announced (4).[pages:4]
Greeley was editor and publisher of the New Yorker fifty years prior to Derby's writing (approximately 1830s). This paper was discontinued in 1841 (127). Greeley founded the New York Tribune that same year; the paper "soon became the favorite newspaper of the booksellers, and especially the publishers of books" (128). Aside from lecturing and editing the Tribune, Greeley also authored several books (131). Derby cites Greeley's The American Conflict as his "most important and valuable book" (131).
Derby also reprints Stedman's poetic tribute to Greeley p138-140. According to Derby, "The names of William Cullen Bryant, Thurlow Weed, Horace Greeley, and Henry Jarvis Raymond are recorded in the permanent political and literary history of our country." By Derby's estimation, these men were "the four great editors who names and whose fame became national through the journals, of which they were the controlling spirits as well as through authorship, all of them having been writers of books" (352-353). Halpine was one of Greeley's "great favorites" (427).
Greeley ran for President in 1872; Halpine's the "Flaunting Lie" had been popularly misattributed to him and was used against him by Southern politicians (428).[pages:72,127-140,143-145,194,203,205,222-224,247,248,250,259,268,270,295,316,317,338,339,352,360,362,423,427,428,482-484,639]
Edwards says that Henry Clapp introduced him to Horace Greeley when serving as Greeley's correspondent in Paris for the New York Tribune. Of Greeley, Edwards says that "[h]e was a pleasant, genial man, of whom I preserve a happy recollection, notwithstanding his spiritualism, his old hat, and his habit of pronouncing French as though it were English; and I discovered, quite recently, that he once wrote a clever and agreeable poem."[pages:84-86]
Mentioned in the 1861 chapter.[pages:54]
Figaro reprints one of his imitations of the "facetise" in the Saturday Press (4).[pages:4]
In a note after his postscript, Figaro mentions that Greeley has been elected President of the American Institute (89).[pages:89]
Greely's editorship of the New York Tribune is mentioned.[pages:9]
"In 1832 a young American student named Albert Brisbane met the Frenchman, by then a frustrated and bitter old prophet, and was promptly converted. When Brisbane returned to America, his energetic and persistent propogandizing--boosted immeasurably by Horace Greeley of the New York Tribune--created a burst of Fourierist activity in the nothern states almost overnight" (2).
It appears that the Tribune under Greeley endorsed Fourierism, and Greeley was active in Fourierist organizations and activities (36).
A section about Horace Greeley's interactions with Fourierism: "Horace Greeley: Association and the Whigs" (36-46).[pages:2, 36-46]
Greeley helped Poe buy Briggs out of the Broadway Journal in 1845 (159).
Hemstreet mentions that Taylor was not very well paid to the Tribune because "Greeley did not believe in high salaries" (206).
Hemstreet mentions that Greeley's home at 35 Nineteenth Street is still standing at the time of his writing. Greeley's next door neighbor was William Allen Butler (246).[pages:159,202,205,206,246, 245-n/a(ill)]
Identified as one of Pfaff's "guests" (61).[pages:61]
Kellogg recalls singing at Greeley's funeral, stating, "I knew Horace Greeley personally and recall many interesting things about him; but, naturally perhaps, what stands out in my memory is the fact that, a few days before he died, he came to hear me sing Handel's Messiah, being, as he said afterwards, particularly touched and impressed by my rendering of I know that my Redeemer liveth. When he came to die, the last words that he said were those, whispered faintly, as if they still echoed in his heart. It may have been because of this fact that it was I who was asked to sing at his funeral."[pages:209]
By 1851, Horace Greeley's New York Tribune had become an unprecedented publishing success in the United States (17).
Greeley's Tribune and Henry Raymond's Times were rivals within the New York City Press, and the years 1854-1855 saw them facing off on many political issues (one of which was marriage and the so-called "free love club"). Greeley took hits because of his association with Fourierism, and his "abiding faith in the ability of government to foster a more moral society." These personal views were often used as ammunition by Raymond and others to attack Greeley's paper (35-37).
Greeley's Tribune was known to have employed a large number of writers on the edge of radical movements (68).[pages:16, 41, 99-100, 113, 122-23, 17, 9, 35-37, 46, 67, 68, 77, 23-24, 29, 76, 79, 126]
Owner of the New York Tribune (24).
Stephen Ryder Fiske's grandfather, Haley Fiske, was "a close personal friend of Horace Greeley" (102).[pages:13, 19, 24, 30, 82, 102, 129]
Odell mentions that he was "in the chair" for Anna Dickinson's lecture called "Something to Do," February 29, 1867 (227). Greeley lectured January 7, 1868, on "Self-Made Men" at the Brooklyn Academy (388). He spoke at the Masonic Temple on Dec. 8, 1867, on "Temperance" (406). Greeley also spoke at Apollo Hall on "Self-Made Men," February 23, 1869 (515).
Greeley spoke during the 5th Anniversary celebration of the Brooklyn Library Association, Dec. 29, 1869, at Dr. Porter's Chruch. This event seems to have been highly noted among one of many "church fairs and festivals" written about in the "amusement" columns of the Brooklyn Times (687).
Greeley lectured on "Self-Made Men" at Town Hall in Queens (?) March 1, 1870. Odell notes the "comical enough" admission fee of 30 cents (690).[pages:227,388,406,515,687,690]
Listed as part of the Lyceum lecture series at Williamsburgh during the 1850-51 season (109).[pages:109]
Spoke as a part of the lectures given by the Hamiltonian Literary Association at the Odeon from Oct. 1859 to March 1860, at Williamsburgh (302). Greeley also appeared at a meeting on Jan. 14, 1863, of the Ridgewood Junior Temperance Union at Lee Avenue Sunday School (539).[pages:302, 539]
An ironic remark refers to Mr. Greeley as "one of the shrewdest agricultural lecturers in the country" (3). It is the item's suggestion that as the Tribune criticized Caleb Cushing's agricultural editor, the paper should apply to its own editor for satisfactory statements on the topic.[pages:3]
Parry writes that Clapp helped Brisbane and Greeley "introduce Fourier's social theories in America" and that "he defined Greeley as a self-made man who worshipped his creator" (44).[pages:44]
Personne reports that there was an argument when Greeley ran into Strakosch (3).[pages:3]
Quelqu'un claims that Barnum's Albino children bear a "striking resemblance to Mr. Greeley" (3).[pages:3]
Mentioned in a discussion of quarrels in several of the intellectual and artistic spheres.[pages:3]
Quelqu'un claims "no offense" to Greeley is intended when he tells the General to make "office-seekers" its "property" (3).[pages:3]
Spofford states that Clara Louise Kellogg sang I know that my Redemmer liveth at Horace Greeley's funeral and that, during his final days, Greeley spoke of Kellogg as one of the most remarkable women he had known (383-384).[pages:383-384]
Greeley was the subject of Clapp's "best-remembered quip": "a self-made man, who worshipped his creator" (120).[pages:120]
Starr claims that the history of journalism tends to be slanted towards examining the editorial process; Starr claims "we have more studies of Horace Greeley than of all the newsmen in his century" (vii). Starr also writes that Greeley's New York Tribune is an "archetype among newspapers of the day," and uses this paper to help focus the narrative of his history (viii).
Clapp's opinion of Greeley was as follows: "He is a self-made man who worships his creator" (4).
Of the increasing pace of the news and the press' emphasis on opinions rather than facts, Starr notes that Greeley realized that "the paper that brings the quickest news is the thing looked to." Starr also notes that the emphasis on editorial commentary helped to contribute to Greeley's fame (6).
Southern postmasters refused to deliver the Tribune and sedition laws were passed against the paper in Texas because of the letters from Charleston that were printed in the paper. In one instance, a Georgia editor invited Greeley to visit "the land you have lied and re-lied on" in a poem that ended:
"You can lower your chin, and open your mouth,
While your neck strains the rope you are tied on" (8).
Starr refers to Greeley, Raymond and Bennett as "those titans of newspaperdom" and notes that their offices were all located in a small area of New York near City Hall Park. Theirs were the "only eight-page dailies in the United States" and were vital news sources for the country (11).
Starr writes that visitors came to the Tribune offices "daily, during the afternoon visiting hours, hoping for a glimpse of Greeley's fabled white coat." Starr recounts the visit of Albert Deane Richardson during this time period and notes that although many came to catch a glimpse of Greeley, Richardson was unable to see him as Greeley was on a lecture tour and Dana often managed visitors and office business (14). According to Starr, Dana was "Blunt, decisive, by turns profane and charming, a Brook Farm idealist annealing into a man of the world after years of exposure to Greeley's irascible ways and the bitter disillusionment of a trip to Europe during the revolutions of 1848, he ran the paper with an iron hand. On more than one occasion he had thrown out Greeley's abstractions from Washington to make way for news -- once for a divorce story. It was the talk down in Pfaff's that he edited Greeley's editorials as well, and the Sunday Mercury hinted that he had been known to veto them" (15).
Of Greeley's fame, Starr writes: "Already the myth of Horace Greeley, the moralist in shining armor, the poor Vermont boy with a hatful of type who had worked hard and lived right and made good, the homely philosopher, the eccentric personality, the national oracle, towered almost frighteningly over the man himself. 'His entrance into a tavern, much more into a lecture hall, raises gratulating shouts,' Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote, 'and I could scarcely keep the people quiet to hear my abstractions, they were so furious to shout Greeley! Greeley! Greeley! Catch me carrying Greeley into my lecture again!...I had as lief travel with...Barnum" (17-18). Part of Greeley's fame was the uniqueness of the Tribune, as "the paper seemed to suggest that its readers were as sophisticated as its editors, and that they shared the world between them." In addition, "Backed by Greeley's willingness to give battle for a cause, his broad humanitarianism, and his remarkable talent for getting himself on newsprint, the paper's fighting qualities kindled something like personal devotion. The Tribune was scarcely a newspaper in 1861; it was an article of faith" (17). Starr also notes that during the height of the Tribune's popularity, "people thought Greeley still edited the Tribune, and every word that went into it -- 'including shipping news,' Charles Congdon added wryly. But the Tribune, with 212 employees, including twenty-eight editors and reporters in 1861, was no more pure Greeley than was the myth he had become" (18). According to Starr, Greeley had the talent of attracting talented writers to the Rookery to cover for his own personal shortcomings; at the Rookery, Greeley "created an atmosphere in which they thrived; yet, in a sense, he was their prisoner." According to Starr, the staff of the paper kept the Tribune committed to anti-slavery while Greeley's own stance wavered and he sometimes feared what the editorials would say (18).
According to Starr, at the Tribune "Their [the staff's] loyalty was not to Greeley's politics, but to his idea of journalism...Such men gave superb implementation to Greeley's credo: that the newspaper must provide American society with leadership -- moral, political, artistic, and intellectual leadership -- before anything else" (19). Sensing changes in the newspaper industry, Greeley moved out of the office he shared with Dana in 1854 and moved to a more remote portion of the building, leaving Dana in "practical command" (19).
As the press sped up and "the leisurely days when one might edit with an eye for literary niceties and philosophical disputation were gone," Starr asks "How would the Tribune fare in this era?" He claims that the paper did not change much, with "Greeley and Dana serenely running news inside and advertising out; the most exciting paper in politics seemed to be the most conservative in journalism. There was another sign, more momentous, that the Tribune would go right no being the Tribune, come what may." This event was the loss of the Tribune's Washington correspondent, Pike, to the foreign service. Greeley sent Dana to Washington to hire a replacement and hired Fitz Henry Warren. Despite his loud nature and commanding presence, "Warren appeared to fit Greeley's bill of particulars" in his involvement in politics and anti-slavery stance and his past newspaper writing career (32-33).
In discussing the Tribune's error in its "On to Richmond" campaign, Starr defends the logic of the failed strategy but discusses the repercussions for Greeley and the paper. According to Starr, "Now Horace Greeley was a broken man. He took to his bed with an attack of 'brain fever,' visions of death flitting before him. He wrote to Lincoln: 'This is my seventh sleepless night.' He would 'second any movement you may see fit to make,' but he despaired of the Union cause. Dana loosed a thunderclap in his absence, an editorial demanding the resignation of the entire Cabinet. Agonized, Greeley publicly repudiated it. Fitz Henry Warren's letter of resignation, assuming the burden of responsibility for 'On to Richmond,' he quite properly refused to print. Rallying to one of his finer moments, Greeley wrote an editorial titled 'Just Once,' acknowledging his responsibility for what appeared in his paper, offering himself as a national scapegoat, coming to grips with what was the real 'great error' of the Tribune in a paragraph that read:
Henceforth I bar all criticism in these columns on Army movements, past or future...Correspondents and reporters may state fact, but must forebear comments.
According to Starr, Greeley made sure that his Washington correspondent Sam Wilkeson was sure that he was serious about this point, insisting that he wanted distance between news and opinion: "I want a man at Washington to find out all that is going on or preparing and calmly report it, writing Editorials separately, to be submitted to criticism and revision here, instead of embodying them in dispatches..." According to Starr, "Objectivity was a principle all but unknown to journalism, but if the results of Greeley's change of heart were difficult to discern in Tribune dispatches, the seed had been planted" (52-53). The error in the "On to Richmond" campaign caused the circulation of the paper to drop significantly, and Greeley was remarked negatively upon as "General Horace." While the paper still had the largest circulation, the Sunday edition was discontinued and the paper's influence was weakened (54-55). According to Starr, Dana, not Greeley, was primarily responsible for beginning the "On to Richmond" campaign, as Greeley was not in the office when Dana ran Warren's piece that called for the Union army to advance (34-35).
In one of Dr. Malcolm Ives's editorials in the Herald the "ultra Pro-Slavery Democrat, and, at the same time, a professed believer in the divinity of monarchical institutions," had "called for the arrest and imprisonment of Henry Ward Beecher, Wendell Phillips, and Greeley" (77).
According to Starr, at the Rookery (the Tribune office), one could seen "men wading through a sea of exchanges -- hundreds of dailies and weeklies sent by editors in hope that something would strike Mr. Greeley's fancy, and because they, in turn, must see the Tribune" (117).
According to Starr, when Gay took over for Dana at the Tribune, he had "inherited all of Dana's authority, and more. Greeley might cavil and carp, but he knew well enough that his managing editor must command unless he himself were to give up his lecturing, his far-flung correspondence, and his leader-writing for a job for which he had very little taste or judgment. It was enough for him that Horace Greeley and the New York Tribune remain indistinguishable int he public mind." Greeley told James R> Gilmore in the winter of 1862 that he had "relinquished control." Gilmore had never written for the paper in fear of Greeley's editing; Greeley replied, "But I have not resigned the blue pencil...You would not report to me but to Gay; and he is of your way of thinking." From then on, Greeley was only responsible for the editorials he wrote (117-118).
In a discussion of the preference of editors to keep the identities of their war correspondents anonymous or under the cover of a pen name, Starr writes about the different choice of editors. Some writers were allowed men names or initials, while editors like Bennet insisted on anonymity. Some writers, however, were allowed to identify themselves, as Starr quotes Sam Wilkeson's explanation of the "prevailing view" to Gay: "The anonymous greatly favors freedom and boldness in newspaper correspondence. I would not allow any letter writer to attach his initials to his communications, unless he was a widely known & influential man like Greeley or Bayard Taylor...Besides the responsibility it fastens on a correspondent, the signature inevitably detracts from the powerful impersonality of a journal" (195).
Starr notes that during the rivalry between the Herald and the Tribune the "poor, ragged Greeley" was often attacked, and despite council to ignore the jabs, could not always ignore the Herald (235).
Starr notes that Lincoln sought Greeley's and the Tribune's support: "having Greeley 'firmly behind me,' he wrote once, 'will be as helpful to me as an army of one hundred thousand men.'" According to Starr, Greeley "held aloof" (127), though he writes later that Greeley and other writers attempted to force Lincoln's hand (129). Under pressure from the intermediary James Gilmore who reported that Greeley was growing impatient, Lincoln would issue a proclamation in 1862 on slavery (127). Lincoln would later arrange for Greeley and the Tribune to receive insider information via Gilmore and Robert J. Walker in exchange for Greeley's public support; Starr notes that "The scheme bore little fruit for either party, and existed only briefly" (159).
Greeley attempted to persuade Villiard to soften his report of the battle at Fredericksburg, as "Greeley refused to let the Tribune assume sole responsibility for the dreadful news...but Monday morning's Tribune would carry the first authentic details of the most terrible repulse of the war" (166). After this battle, Greeley began to seriously discuss the idea of foreign mediation; this proved to be a controversial position for some, prompting Wilkeson to quit the Tribune (169, 196). Evidently Greeley's position also worried Gay, for who, according to Starr, "The constant threat of Greeley's insisting again on plumping for a negotiated peace haunted him"; Gay's job during this period was largely to "counteract" Greeley (289).
During the draft riots (July 13, 1863) that occurred in response to the conscription laws and tensions between runaway slaves and immigrant workers in New York, cries of "Tribune office to be burned tonight!" and "We'll hang Horace Greeley to a sour apple tree!" were heard (221). The mob marched to the Tribune offices that evening, where they yelled for the demise of the paper and Greeley. Greeley was in a meeting with Theodore Tilton of the Independent and informed of what was going on outside. Greeley agreed with Gay that the offices should be armed, but did not want arms brought into the building. Greeley also chose to remain in New York rather than fleeing the city for his safety; Greeley and Tilton had an dinner engagement that Greeley wished to honor. As the two men left the Tribune building, they passed through the mob untouched (222). The violence against the newspaper's offices, continued, however, with a mob of more than two thousand gathered outside; at about seven that evening, the mob began throwing pavement stones and breaking the windows of the building. The mob entered the counting-room, where they broke the furniture and began a fire that the Tribune staff fought to put out. Tom Rooker and the building engineer were positioned in the press room, ready to puncture the boilers and spray the rioters with hot water and steam. One hundred and ten police men arrived to fight the crowd, which they did, killing some of the rioters. The mob was driven out of the Tribune offices, where "Gay helped clean up the wreckage and succor the wounded until the ambulances arrived. Feeling like a Parisian during the Terror, he saw the Tribune to press, on schedule. It is described as the first day of the most violent civic disturbance in American history" (223). The rioting continued the next day (July 14), and the fighting in the streets between the mob and the army and police was more violent. Gay stayed at the Tribune offices all night and ordered that the walls be lined with reams of wet newsprint to help lower the fire hazard. The regular business of the paper - reporting and editing - continued. Gilmore brought a wagonload of old muskets from Governor's Island to protect the building, making it an "arsenal" by the time Greeley arrived. When Greeley came to the offices, he ordered the guns be removed: "Take 'em away! Take 'em away! I don't want to kill anybody, and besides they're a lot more likely to go off and kill us" (223). Starr suggests that Greeley would have thought differently of matters had he not gone home before the previous night's raid and fight. Gay ignored Greeley's orders and instead wrote a letter to his wife (a Quaker) about their escape plan and the situation at the offices as the rioters congregated in front of the offices (223-224).
During Lincoln's re-election campaign, like the President, Greeley was nearly certain that he had lost the election (323). Greeley also privately supported Chase during the election (314). By September 6, 1854, however, Greeley abandoned his plan to nominate someone else, and, as public sentiment towards Lincoln increased, the Tribune publicly announced its support of the re-election of the President (326-327). Gay and Greeley predicted early that Lincoln had carried New York during his win (333).
Extra page numbers: 221-224, 235, 239, 266, 289, 291, 292, 312, 314, 323, 326-327, 333, 348-349.[pages:vii,viii,4,6,8,11,14,15,17-19,32-33,34-35,52-55,69,70,71n,77,96-97,99,100,104,116,117-118,124-125,127,128,129,157,159,166,169,195,196]
Mr. Greely is mentioned as the editor of the Tribune.[pages:2]
"It is a striking fact that the number of young men prominently connected with the New York press as writers is greater now than at any former period...the chief editorial work in these journals is done by men between the years of twenty-five and forty" (4).
"Horace Greeley is like a father among sons in The Tribune office" (4).[pages:4]
Greeley frequented the Delmonico's restaurant on Chamber's Street (124).
He presided over a dinner held at Delmonico's for Charles Dickens, which cost about $3000
Greeley refused to preside over a meeting of the New York press club unless female members of the press were allowed to attend.[pages:113-114, 124, 139]
Whitman discusses how he was often in Washington. Whitman states that Greeley contributed to discussions and ideas but was not a great man. Whitman also discusses Greeley's New England smartness and said, "I ought to like him - and do- for he was very sweet and kind to me...I always felt drawn."[pages:209]
In recounting Greeley's anti-slavery actions during the late 1850's, Appleton cites his indictment in Virginia for "circulating incendiary documents"- The Tribune. In addition, Appleton claims The Tribune as greatly stimulating the north's movement to make Kansas a free state.[pages:734-741, 735(ill.)]
Horace Greeley hired Stephen Pearl Andrews to cover senatorial news for the New York Tribune. Later, Greeley and Andrews engaged in brutal public debate through the letters column of the Tribune. Greeley strongly disagreed with Andrews' anarchistic/Utopian ideals.
As a demonstration of his statement, "New York's growth during the quarter century that preceded the Civil War nowhere more clearly manifested itself than in the development of its daily press," Wilson notes that Greeley's Tribune, "a four page penny sheet," was first publised April 10, 1841, at No. 30 Ann Street (372). Greeley was thrity at the time and had lived in New York for ten years after learning the printing trade in Vermont. Before establishing the Tribune Greeley had spent his time in New York "occupied generally in directing the fortunes of some popular publication." "He had already proven himself a powerful and persuasive writer, with a gift for keen satire and fine invective, and he made the Tribune an advocate first of the Whig and later the Republican principles the like of which, for vigor and moral earnestness, had never been known in America" (372). By the end of three months, the Tribune's circulation reached fifteen thousand copies; "Its career thereafter was one of steadily increasing prosperity, and its editor, whose breadth of vision widened with the years, remained until his death in 1872 the strongest individual force in journalism" (372-373).[pages:372-373]
Greeley was the "eccentric founder" of "The New-York Tribune." Winter remarks that "in the early days" of the paper, Margaret Fuller was "a contributor to that paper and, more or less, to the perplexities of its eccentric founder, Horace Greeley" (31).
Winter states that Clapp knew Greeley well, and the two men were in Paris at the same time. Clapp described Greeley as "a self-made man that worships his creator" (62).
When Winter arrived in New York in 1859-'60, Greeley was publishing the "Tribune" "in a low, common building at the corner of Nassau and Spruce streets,--where its palace now stands." Winter notes that at that time, the "Tribune" was "devoted to Anti-Slavery" (136).
Winter contrasts Curtis's speaking style to Greeley's, saying that "Horace Greeley, with whose peculiar drawl and rustic aspect his [Curtis] princelike demeanor and lucid and sonorous rhetoric were in striking contrast" (241).[pages:31,62,136,241,242]
The Vault at Pfaff's
27 Memorial Drive West, Bethlehem, PA 18015